I INTRODUCTION Globalization, the concept that encapsulates the growth of connections between people on a planetary scale. Globalization involves the reduction of barriers to trans-world contacts. Through it, people become more able—physically, legally, culturally, and psychologically—to engage with each other in “one world”. Global connections take many forms. For instance, jet aeroplanes transport passengers and […]


I INTRODUCTION Counter-Culture, in sociology, a set of values and associated behavioural patterns alternative and opposed to those dominant in a society or community which are actively rejected by followers of the counter-culture who derive a sense of a distinct identity or common cause from their opposition to the established values and patterns of life. […]

Choral Music

I INTRODUCTION Choral Music, music sung by a group of people as a unit. Usually, the term choral music implies two or more singers for each part, whereas the term part-song is used for vocal music having one singer for each part. Most choral music is written for a chorus, or choir, consisting either of […]

African Music

I INTRODUCTION African Music, the music of black Africans living south of the Sahara, as distinct from the Arab music of North Africa. A rich musical tradition has developed in this vast region of more than 40 nations, each with its own history and unique mixture of cultures and languages. II MUSICAL STYLE Although diverse, […]

Historiography (art)

Historiography (art), the study of the history of the visual arts, a field that can range from the detailed, objective cataloguing of works of art to philosophical musing on the nature of beauty. It was not until the 19th century that art history became a fully fledged academic discipline, but its origins go back to […]


I INTRODUCTION Ethnomusicology, the study of music in its social and cultural context. II DEFINITIONS AND HISTORY Ethnomusicology is commonly thought of as the study of music outside the Western classical tradition (a repertoire that could be defined by the popular term “world music”), but in fact it goes beyond the study of music as […]

Chinese Cinema

I INTRODUCTION Chinese Cinema, historical development of the cinema in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Although the cosmopolitan port city of Shanghai held projections of films from unidentified Western companies in 1896 and 1897, China’s capital Beijing had to wait until 1902 for its first glimpse of the new medium. There was also a disastrous […]


I INTRODUCTION Genocide, crime in international law that, according to the 1948 United Nations (UN) Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide, is defined as “any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; […]

Austro-Asiatic Languages

Austro-Asiatic Languages, important language family with two subfamilies: Munda, 21 languages spoken by several million people in India; and Mon-Khmer, divided into 8 branches (with many further subdivisions), 168 languages spoken by some 35 to 45 million people in South East Asia. Few of the languages have a written history. Among Mon-Khmer languages are Khmer, […]



I INTRODUCTION Buddhism, a major world religion, founded in north-eastern India and based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, who is known as the Buddha, or Enlightened One. Originating as a monastic movement within the dominant Brahman tradition of the day, Buddhism quickly developed in a distinctive direction. The Buddha not only rejected significant aspects […]