I INTRODUCTION Documentaries, carefully structured television and radio programmes that explore real-life subjects in detail. Documentaries deal with any area of life—history, culture, and the natural world, as well as topical events. They examine their subjects in depth and aim to be authoritative. To this end, documentaries use “primary sources”—people and documents close to the […]


I INTRODUCTION International, the common name of various associations formed to unite socialist and communist organizations throughout the world. II THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL In 1864 representatives of English and French industrial workers founded the International Working Men’s Association in London, dedicated to the overthrow of the capitalist system. Karl Marx, then living in London, was […]


I INTRODUCTION Cherokee, North American people, of the Iroquoian linguistic family and the southeast culture area. The Cherokee played an important role in colonial America and in US history; they remain one of the largest indigenous groups in the United States. II HISTORY Archaeological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Cherokee migrated in prehistoric times […]

Aviation Law

I INTRODUCTION Aviation Law, the body of international and domestic law governing various aspects of civil aviation. Agreements concerning activities in space have also been established. II INTERNATIONAL LAW The importance of modern aviation was recognized during World War II when a conference was convened in Chicago in 1944 to discuss regulation of post-war international […]

Air Transport Industry

I INTRODUCTION Air Transport Industry, the area of commerce in which aircraft are employed to carry passengers, freight, and mail. Air transport companies operate scheduled airlines and non-scheduled, or charter, services over local, regional, national, and international routes. The aircraft operated by these companies range from small single-engine aeroplanes to large multi-engine jet transports. General […]

Traffic Control

I INTRODUCTION Traffic Control, the system of traffic engineering, employing prescribed traffic rules and regulations and devices such as signals, signs, and markings, to relieve vehicular congestion and air pollution, and to promote safety and pedestrian mobility, usually in heavily populated urban areas. In smaller towns, with lighter traffic, similar but simpler control devices and […]


I INTRODUCTION Automation, system of manufacture designed to extend the capacity of machines to perform certain tasks formerly done by humans, and to control sequences of operations without human intervention. The term automation has also been used to describe nonmanufacturing systems in which programmed or automatic devices can operate independently or nearly independently of human […]

Chinese Literature

I INTRODUCTION Chinese Literature, writings produced in the Chinese language. Two distinct traditions exist in Chinese literature: the literary, or classical, and the vernacular, or colloquial. The former can be traced back more than a thousand years before the Christian era and has existed almost continuously until modern times. The latter, consisting originally of folk […]

History and Historiography

I INTRODUCTION History and Historiography, terms used, often in conjunction, to denote the study and recording of past events. History, in its broadest sense, is the totality of all past events, although a more realistic definition would limit it to the known past. Historiography is the written record of what is known of human lives […]


I INTRODUCTION Internet, computer-based global information system. The Internet is composed of many interconnected computer networks. Each network may link tens, hundreds, or even thousands of computers, enabling them to share information and processing power. The Internet has made it possible for people all over the world to communicate with one another effectively and inexpensively. […]