I INTRODUCTION Documentaries, carefully structured television and radio programmes that explore real-life subjects in detail. Documentaries deal with any area of life—history, culture, and the natural world, as well as topical events. They examine their subjects in depth and aim to be authoritative. To this end, documentaries use “primary sources”—people and documents close to the […]


I INTRODUCTION International, the common name of various associations formed to unite socialist and communist organizations throughout the world. II THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL In 1864 representatives of English and French industrial workers founded the International Working Men’s Association in London, dedicated to the overthrow of the capitalist system. Karl Marx, then living in London, was […]

Children’s Television

I INTRODUCTION Children’s Television, the historical development of broadcasting aimed at younger viewers. Children’s television in the United Kingdom owes much to the public service ideals of the BBC, where John Reith, as the first director-general, made a commitment to provide programmes for children on the new “wireless”: “It is not to be like school. […]

American Cinema

I INTRODUCTION American Cinema, the historical development of cinema in the United States. The first 20 years of technical and organizational progress that created the standard form of cinema was a complex process that took place in both Europe and the United States, as is described in the article Early Development of Cinema. But by […]

World War II

I INTRODUCTION World War II, the global military conflict that, in terms of lives lost and material destruction, was the most devastating war in human history. It began in 1939 as a European conflict between Germany and an Anglo-French-Polish coalition but eventually widened to include most of the nations of the world. It ended in […]

World War I

I INTRODUCTION World War I, military conflict, from 1914 to 1918, that began as a local European war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia on July 28, 1914; was transformed into a general European struggle by Germany’s declaration of war against Russia on August 1, 1914; and eventually became a global war involving 32 nations. Twenty-eight of […]

Aviation Law

I INTRODUCTION Aviation Law, the body of international and domestic law governing various aspects of civil aviation. Agreements concerning activities in space have also been established. II INTERNATIONAL LAW The importance of modern aviation was recognized during World War II when a conference was convened in Chicago in 1944 to discuss regulation of post-war international […]

Air Transport Industry

I INTRODUCTION Air Transport Industry, the area of commerce in which aircraft are employed to carry passengers, freight, and mail. Air transport companies operate scheduled airlines and non-scheduled, or charter, services over local, regional, national, and international routes. The aircraft operated by these companies range from small single-engine aeroplanes to large multi-engine jet transports. General […]


I INTRODUCTION Music, the organized movement of sounds through a continuum of time. Music plays a role in all societies, and it exists in a large number of styles, each characteristic of a geographical region or a historical era. II CULTURAL DEFINITIONS All known societies have music, but only a few languages have a specific […]

Indian Cinema

I INTRODUCTION Indian Cinema, the historical development of cinema in India. Cinema is popularly acknowledged to have been introduced to India through the famed private screenings by the Lumière Brothers at the Watson’s Hotel, Bombay, on July 7, 1896. As elsewhere, however, a variety of “pre-cinema” technologies and art forms addressing the projected moving image […]