I INTRODUCTION Semantics (Greek, semantikos, “significant”), the study of the meaning of linguistic signs—that is, words, expressions, and sentences. Scholars of semantics try to answer such questions as “What is the meaning of (the word) X?” They do this by studying what signs are, as well as how signs possess significance—that is, how they are […]

Traffic Control

I INTRODUCTION Traffic Control, the system of traffic engineering, employing prescribed traffic rules and regulations and devices such as signals, signs, and markings, to relieve vehicular congestion and air pollution, and to promote safety and pedestrian mobility, usually in heavily populated urban areas. In smaller towns, with lighter traffic, similar but simpler control devices and […]

Language Acquisition

I INTRODUCTION Language Acquisition, the process by which a language is acquired by a child or adult. Human language is an extremely complex code, and the fact that children acquire their native language effortlessly and without explicit learning is still a source of much wonder. In order to be able to communicate using speech, children […]

Austro-Asiatic Languages

Austro-Asiatic Languages, important language family with two subfamilies: Munda, 21 languages spoken by several million people in India; and Mon-Khmer, divided into 8 branches (with many further subdivisions), 168 languages spoken by some 35 to 45 million people in South East Asia. Few of the languages have a written history. Among Mon-Khmer languages are Khmer, […]


I INTRODUCTION Singing, the use of the human voice to produce music. In singing, the lungs act as an air reservoir and bellows, forcing air between the vocal cords of the larynx and causing them to vibrate, much like the double reed of an oboe. The resulting sound is amplified as it resonates in the […]

Indo-European Languages

I INTRODUCTION Indo-European Languages, the most widely spoken family of languages in the world (although not the largest language family in the world), containing the following nine subfamilies: Albanian, Armenian, Baltic, Celtic, Germanic, Greek, Indo-Iranian, Italic (including the Romance languages), Slavic; and five extinct subfamilies, Anatolian (including Hittite), Phrygian, Thracian, Tocharian, and an Unclassified group […]

Germanic Languages

Germanic Languages, subfamily of the Indo-European languages consisting of around 58 languages. Germanic languages are spoken by more than 480 million people in Northern and Western Europe, North America, South Africa, and Australia. In their structure and evolution they fall into three branches: 1. East Germanic (extinct): the Gothic language and some other extinct languages. […]


I INTRODUCTION Deafness, most simply defined as an inability to hear. This definition, however, gives no real impression of how deafness affects function in society for the hearing-impaired person. The condition affects all age groups, and its consequences range from minor to severe. Profoundly deaf people have a hearing loss so severe that they cannot […]

Speech and Speech Disorders

I INTRODUCTION Speech and Speech Disorders. Speech is a learned system of communication requiring the coordinated use of voice, articulation, and language skills. Although many animals are physiologically able to use the voice for communicating a wide range of simple messages to others of their species, only humans are able to produce true speech (as […]


I INTRODUCTION Phonetics, a branch of linguistics concerned with the production, transmission, and perception of speech sounds. The main field of study is articulatory phonetics but other fields are experimental phonetics and acoustic phonetics. Basic phonetic principles are often applied to other linguistics disciplines, including sociolinguistics (for example, when variations in pronunciation according to social […]