Brain Disorders

I INTRODUCTION Brain, Disorders of the problems with brain function that may arise through birth defects, disease, or damage to the brain resulting from stroke or physical injury. The brain controls movement, coordination, perception, and speech, as well as directing many basic bodily functions; it is where cognition takes place and is the seat of […]


I INTRODUCTION Schizophrenia, a term for a group of mental disorders marked by a variety of symptoms. Literally, the term means “split mind”, but, contrary to a common misconception, schizophrenia does not imply a split personality, in the sense of someone acting as two different people. Not until the 20th century was schizophrenia distinguished from […]

Stress-Related Disorders

I INTRODUCTION Stress-Related Disorders, diseases or injuries brought on or worsened by psychological stress. These psychosomatic disorders commonly involve the autonomic nervous system, which controls the body’s internal organs. Some kinds of a headache and facial pain, asthma, stomach ulcers, high blood pressure, and certain kinds of injury, such as repetitive strain injury and backache, […]

Mental Disorders

I INTRODUCTION Mental Disorders, abnormal or unstable behaviour, thoughts, or feelings. People are defined as mentally disordered because they behave, think, or feel differently from most others. However, even the most bizarre and strange behaviour can often make sense, once it is understood why the person is thinking and feeling that way. It is impossible […]


I INTRODUCTION Theology, a discipline that attempts to express the content of a religious faith as a coherent body of propositions. The word is usually taken to refer to the Christian faith, although it is sometimes extended by analogy to cover other creeds since Christianity originated the term in its present meaning. Theology is narrower […]


I INTRODUCTION Behaviourism, a movement in psychology that advocates the use of strict experimental procedures to study observable behaviour (or responses) in relation to the environment (or stimuli). The behaviouristic view of psychology has its roots in the writings on associationism of British philosophers. It also arose out of the American school of psychology known […]


I INTRODUCTION Psychiatry, the branch of medicine specializing in mental disorders. Psychiatrists not only diagnose and treat these disorders but also conduct research directed at understanding and preventing them. A psychiatrist is a doctor of medicine who has had postgraduate training in psychiatry. Many psychiatrists take further training in psychoanalysis, child psychiatry, or other subspecialities. […]

Depression (psychology)

I INTRODUCTION Depression (psychology), the mental disorder characterized by feelings of worthlessness, guilt, sadness, helplessness, and hopelessness. In contrast to normal sadness, or the grief accompanying the loss of a loved one, clinical depression is sadness without any apparent reason and is persistent and severe. It may be accompanied by a variety of related symptoms, […]

Free Will

I INTRODUCTION Free Will, power or ability of the human mind to choose a course of action or make a decision without being subject to restraints imposed by antecedent causes, by necessity, or by divine predetermination. A completely free act is itself a cause and not an effect; it is beyond causal sequence or the […]

Will (philosophy and psychology)

I INTRODUCTION Will (philosophy and psychology), the capacity to choose among alternative courses of action and to act on the choice made, particularly when the action is directed towards a specific goal or is governed by definite ideas and principles of conduct. Willed behaviour contrasts with behaviour stemming from instinct, impulse, reflex, or habit, none […]