Children’s Television

I INTRODUCTION Children’s Television, the historical development of broadcasting aimed at younger viewers. Children’s television in the United Kingdom owes much to the public service ideals of the BBC, where John Reith, as the first director-general, made a commitment to provide programmes for children on the new “wireless”: “It is not to be like school. […]

Photographic Techniques

I INTRODUCTION Photographic Techniques, various techniques of producing permanent images on sensitized surfaces by means of the photochemical action of light or other forms of radiant energy; or the more recent techniques of capturing images by electronic means. In today’s society, photography plays important roles as an information medium, as a tool in science and […]

Motor Industry

I INTRODUCTION Motor Industry, the area of commerce in which cars are designed, manufactured, and marketed. It is the world’s largest manufacturing industry. II EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDUSTRY The attempt to find a form of motive power to replace horses stretches back to the 17th century. Steam power was the most promising but it […]


I INTRODUCTION Automation, system of manufacture designed to extend the capacity of machines to perform certain tasks formerly done by humans, and to control sequences of operations without human intervention. The term automation has also been used to describe nonmanufacturing systems in which programmed or automatic devices can operate independently or nearly independently of human […]

Motor Car

I INTRODUCTION Motor Car, any self-propelled vehicle with more than two wheels and a passenger compartment, capable of being steered by the operator for use on roads. The term is used more specifically to denote any such vehicle designed to carry a maximum of seven people. The primary components of a car are the power […]


I INTRODUCTION Internet, computer-based global information system. The Internet is composed of many interconnected computer networks. Each network may link tens, hundreds, or even thousands of computers, enabling them to share information and processing power. The Internet has made it possible for people all over the world to communicate with one another effectively and inexpensively. […]

Audio-Visual Education

I INTRODUCTION Audio-Visual Education, planning, preparation, and use of devices and materials that involve sight, sound, or both, for educational purposes. Among the devices used are still and motion pictures, filmstrips, television, transparencies, audiotapes, records, teaching machines, computers, and video discs. The growth of audio-visual education has reflected developments in both technology and learning theory. […]

Information Theory

I INTRODUCTION Information Theory, theory concerned with the mathematical laws governing the transmission and processing of information. More specifically, information theory deals with the measurement of information, the representation of information (such as encoding), and the capacity of communication systems to transmit and process information. Encoding can refer to the transformation of speech or images […]

Philosophy, Chinese

I INTRODUCTION Philosophy, Chinese, collective designation for the various schools of thought originated by Chinese scholars and sages. Chinese philosophy has passed through three distinct historical stages: the classical age, a creative period from the 6th to the 2nd century bc; the medieval age, from the 2nd century bc to the 11th century ad, a […]

Computer Science

Computer Science, the study of computers, including their design, operation, and use of processing information. Computer science combines both theoretical and practical aspects of engineering, electronics, information theory, mathematics, logic and human behaviour. Aspects of computer science range from the design of programs and computer hardware to artificial intelligence and robotics. The origins of computer […]