I INTRODUCTION Volleyball, a six-a-side court game played by hitting an inflated ball back and forth over a high net. Points are scored by successfully landing the ball in the court of the opponents without its being returned. II COURT AND EQUIPMENT The volleyball court, 30 by 60 ft (9.14 by 18.29 m) in the […]


I INTRODUCTION Fencing, the art of attack and defence with a sword or similar weapon. Modern fencing is a recreational and competitive sport, but it follows the rules and techniques originally developed for efficient swordplay in duelling. II HISTORY During the Middle Ages, the sword was an offensive weapon used for cracking armour, and the […]


I INTRODUCTION Boxing, the athletic contest between two people, each of whom uses the fists to try to knock the other unconscious or to inflict enough punishment to cause the opponent either to quit or to be judged beaten. A boxing match is conducted under established rules and procedures and has a referee, judges, and […]


I INTRODUCTION Basketball, sport, usually played on an indoor court in which two competing teams of five players each attempt to score points or “baskets” by throwing an inflated ball so that it descends through one of two baskets suspended, at each end of the court, above their heads. The team scoring the most such […]

Game Theory (mathematics)

I INTRODUCTION Game Theory (mathematics), mathematical analysis of any situation involving a conflict of interest, with the intent of indicating the optimal choices that, under given conditions, will lead to the desired outcome. Although game theory has roots in the study of such well-known amusements as noughts and crosses, chess, and poker—hence the name—it also […]

Olympic Games

I INTRODUCTION Olympic Games, international athletic competition, held every four years at a different city site. A modified revival of the Olympian Games, the Olympic Games were inaugurated in the spring of 1896, largely through the efforts of the French sportsman and educator Baron Pierre de Coubertin. This competition evolved into the Summer Olympics—the subject […]

Olympian Games

Olympian Games, most famous of the four ancient games held in ancient Greece, the other three being the Isthmian, Pythian, and Nemean games. The Olympian Games were held in honour of Zeus and took place every four years at Olympia, the location of the deity’s principal shrine. The games were officially founded in 776 bc, […]

Commonwealth Games

I INTRODUCTION Commonwealth Games, a major multisport competition staged every four years and contested by individuals and teams representing countries from within the Commonwealth of Nations. II HISTORY The idea for the event was first proposed in 1891 by the Reverend J. Astley Cooper and the first Inter-Empire sports meeting was held at Crystal Palace, […]