Education Act 1944

Education Act 1944, legislation that radically changed the structure of education in England and Wales. Rab Butler, as Minister of Education, championed the progression of the Act, and it is after him that the Act is commonly known: “The Butler Act”. The Act affected education in four main ways. First, it increased the role and […]

Nursery Education

I INTRODUCTION Nursery Education, term universally applied to the education of children aged two to six before they enter primary school. The ages of the boys and girls depend on the admission requirements of the nurseries and schools, the availability of places in the area, and the educational policy of the country. Most nurseries and […]

Degree, Academic

I INTRODUCTION Degree, Academic, title granted by a college or university, usually signifying completion of an established course of study. Honorary degrees are conferred as marks of distinction, not necessarily of scholarship. II HISTORY Institutions of higher learning have granted degrees since the 12th century. The word itself was then used for the baccalaureate and […]

Education, Postgraduate

I INTRODUCTION Education, Postgraduate, courses of study in colleges and universities, professional schools, and other postsecondary institutions offered after completion of an undergraduate curriculum. Specific programmes of postgraduate education usually require a baccalaureate or bachelor’s degree or its equivalent as a prerequisite for admission. Education beyond the undergraduate years is often directed towards preparation for […]

Education, Military

I INTRODUCTION Education, Military, training of the officers and enlisted (or conscripted) personnel of a nation’s military and naval forces. The goal of such training is to equip members of the services with the basic skills and discipline needed for appropriate action under the stress of combat. Qualified personnel may receive more formal education to […]

Education, Medical

Education, Medical, a process by which individuals acquire and maintain the skills necessary for the effective practice of medicine. To train as a conventional doctor in the Western world a person needs to have achieved a good level of understanding in the sciences (for example, physics, chemistry, biology), either at senior (high) school or at […]

Education, Physical

I INTRODUCTION Education, Physical, instruction in various kinds of physical activity to promote the physical development and well-being of the individual. Physical education is generally taught in schools from nursery to secondary level, and in some countries, including Britain, is a compulsory part of the curriculum. It involves organized sports, gymnastics, dance, athletic activities, swimming, […]

Education, Multicultural

I INTRODUCTION Education, Multicultural, educational approach that celebrates the cultural diversity of contemporary society. Its basic premise is that by exposing all children to the social and cultural customs of ethnic minority communities living in their country, they will have a greater understanding and tolerance of people from different backgrounds This article deals only with […]

Education, Adult

I INTRODUCTION Education, Adult, any organized and sustained learning programme designed for and appropriate to the needs of adults. Usually, adults need to fit in study alongside other domestic and work responsibilities; they bring a diversity of experience to their studies, and they study voluntarily. “Adult education” is an inclusive term covering all types of […]

Colleges and Universities

I INTRODUCTION Colleges and Universities, degree-granting institutions of higher education. In the original sense of the word, a college was a group of students who gathered to share academic and residential facilities. Each college was a component part of a corporate body called a university, the word being an abbreviation of the Latin Universitas magisterium […]