Information Technology in Education

I INTRODUCTION Information Technology in Education, effects of the continuing developments in information technology (IT) on education. The pace of change brought about by new technologies has had a significant effect on the way people live, work, and play worldwide. New and emerging technologies challenge the traditional process of teaching and learning, and the way […]

Further Education

I INTRODUCTION Further Education (FE), the tertiary sector of education, following primary and secondary education, and sometimes preceding higher education. Whereas in the rest of Europe the tertiary sector is generally confined to vocational education and training, in the United Kingdom FE embraces both academic and vocational or professional study programmes. FE in the United […]


I INTRODUCTION Literacy, the ability to read and write at a level for an individual to operate and progress in the society they live in. It is sometimes further defined as the ability to decode written or printed signs, symbols, or letters, combined into words. In 1958 UNESCO defined an illiterate person as someone “who […]


I INTRODUCTION Adolescence, stage of maturation between childhood and adulthood. The term denotes the period from the beginning of puberty to maturity; it usually starts at about age 14 in males and age 12 in females. The transition to adulthood varies among cultures, but it is generally defined as the time when individuals begin to […]

Educational Psychology

I INTRODUCTION Educational Psychology, field of psychology concerned with the development, learning, and behaviour of children and young people as students in schools, colleges, and universities. It includes the study of children within the family and other social settings, and also focuses on students with disabilities and special educational needs. Educational psychology is concerned with […]

Animal Behaviour

I INTRODUCTION Animal Behaviour, the way different kinds of animals behave, which has fascinated inquiring minds since at least the time of Plato and Aristotle. Particularly intriguing has been the ability of simple creatures to perform complicated tasks—weave the web, build a nest, sing a song, find a home, or capture food—at just the right […]


I INTRODUCTION Musical or Musical Comedy, theatrical production in which songs and choruses, instrumental accompaniments and interludes, and often dance are integrated into a dramatic plot. The genre developed and was refined in the United States, particularly in the theatres along Broadway in New York, during the first half of the 20th century. The musical […]

Educational Broadcasting

I INTRODUCTION Educational Broadcasting, use of radio and television to assist teaching and learning. Pioneers of wireless telegraphy (radio), such as Marconi, working 100 or so years ago, believed the new technology would soon be put to useful purposes. Shortly after it was set up in 1922, the British Broadcasting Company, later the British Broadcasting […]

Education, International Standards in

Education, International Standards in, the international comparison between school systems. Such comparisons are useful in describing a narrow range of performances, although, in their present state of development, they do little to explain, in ways that could help policymakers nationally, the reasons for the differences that such tests reveal. The main cross-national comparative studies of […]

Education Act 1944

Education Act 1944, legislation that radically changed the structure of education in England and Wales. Rab Butler, as Minister of Education, championed the progression of the Act, and it is after him that the Act is commonly known: “The Butler Act”. The Act affected education in four main ways. First, it increased the role and […]