Historiography (art)

Historiography (art), the study of the history of the visual arts, a field that can range from the detailed, objective cataloguing of works of art to philosophical musing on the nature of beauty. It was not until the 19th century that art history became a fully fledged academic discipline, but its origins go back to […]

Further Education

I INTRODUCTION Further Education (FE), the tertiary sector of education, following primary and secondary education, and sometimes preceding higher education. Whereas in the rest of Europe the tertiary sector is generally confined to vocational education and training, in the United Kingdom FE embraces both academic and vocational or professional study programmes. FE in the United […]

Educational Psychology

I INTRODUCTION Educational Psychology, field of psychology concerned with the development, learning, and behaviour of children and young people as students in schools, colleges, and universities. It includes the study of children within the family and other social settings, and also focuses on students with disabilities and special educational needs. Educational psychology is concerned with […]

Animal Behaviour

I INTRODUCTION Animal Behaviour, the way different kinds of animals behave, which has fascinated inquiring minds since at least the time of Plato and Aristotle. Particularly intriguing has been the ability of simple creatures to perform complicated tasks—weave the web, build a nest, sing a song, find a home, or capture food—at just the right […]


I INTRODUCTION Musical or Musical Comedy, theatrical production in which songs and choruses, instrumental accompaniments and interludes, and often dance are integrated into a dramatic plot. The genre developed and was refined in the United States, particularly in the theatres along Broadway in New York, during the first half of the 20th century. The musical […]

Culture history

I INTRODUCTION Culture, a word in common use but with complex meanings, derived, like the term broadcasting, from the treatment and care of the soil and of what grows on it. It is directly related to cultivation and the adjectives cultural and culture are part of the same verbal complex. A person of culture has […]


I INTRODUCTION Civilization, advanced state of a society possessing historical and cultural unity. This article is concerned with the problem of identifying specific societies that, because of their distinctive achievements, are regarded by historians as separate civilizations. Distinctive features of the various civilizations are discussed elsewhere. The historical perspective used in viewing a civilization, rather […]


Subculture, group of people with beliefs, attitudes, customs, and other forms of behaviour differing from those of the dominant society, while at the same time being related to it. The concept refers to minority groups such as ethnic minorities, drug users, or even religious groups or gay communities. It has been argued that the subculture […]

Education, Postgraduate

I INTRODUCTION Education, Postgraduate, courses of study in colleges and universities, professional schools, and other postsecondary institutions offered after completion of an undergraduate curriculum. Specific programmes of postgraduate education usually require a baccalaureate or bachelor’s degree or its equivalent as a prerequisite for admission. Education beyond the undergraduate years is often directed towards preparation for […]

Education, Medical

Education, Medical, a process by which individuals acquire and maintain the skills necessary for the effective practice of medicine. To train as a conventional doctor in the Western world a person needs to have achieved a good level of understanding in the sciences (for example, physics, chemistry, biology), either at senior (high) school or at […]